Sabtu, 07 April 2012

linux operating system

Linux is the name given to the Unix computer operating system. Linux is one example of the development of free software and open source major. Like the free software and other open source generally, Linux source code can be modified, used and redistributed freely by anyone. The name "Linux" comes from the name of the author, which was introduced in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Systems, equipment systems and libraries usually come from the GNU operating system, which was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. The GNU contribution is the basis of the alternative name GNU / Linux. Linux has long been known for its use in servers, and backed by leading computer companies like Intel, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Novell, Oracle Corporation, Red Hat, and Sun Microsystems. Linux is used as the operating system on various types of computer hardware, including desktop computers, supercomputers, and Embedded systems such as electronic book readers, video game systems (PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and XBox), mobile phones and routers. Information technology observers believe the success of Linux because Linux does not depend on the vendor (vendor independence), low operating cost, and compatibility is higher than the UNIX version is not free, as well as the safety factor and high stability compared to other operating systems like Microsoft Windows. These characteristics are also a testament to the excellence model of open source software development (open source software). Linux operating system known as Linux distributions (Linux distribution) or Linux distributions generally include a device-support software such as web servers, programming languages, databases, desktop (desktop environment) such as GNOME, KDE and Xfce also has a package of office applications (office suite) as, KOffice, Abiword, Gnumeric and LibreOffice.
Richard Stallman, founder of the GNU project, and Linus Torvalds, the Linux kernel maker
Unix operating system developed and implemented in the 1960s and first released in 1970. Availability and compatibility factors that cause high can be used, copied and modified extensively by academic institutions and businesses. GNU project founder Richard Stalman

Richard Stallman, pendiri proyek GNU, dan Linus Torvalds, pembuat kernel Linux
Unix operating system developed and implemented in the 1960s and first released in 1970. Availability and compatibility factors that cause high can be used, copied and modified extensively by academic institutions and businesses. GNU project founder Richard Stalman

Linux logo Linux Logo (Tux) began when Linus Torvalds was a walk in the park Perth. While we were walking it was Linus Torvalds in the stakes by Pinguin scores and fever for days. He thinks that the character of a penguin suited to be a logo of his new operating system. Then held a competition to design a new logo Linux, and the competition was won by Larry Ewing who managed to depict a penguin that is sitting.

GNU ProjectGNU project which began in 1984 has the objective to create an operating system compatible with Unix and completely and totally made up of free software. In 1985, Richard Stallman founded the Free Software Foundation and developed the GNU General Public License (GNU General Public License or GNU GPL). Most programs required by an operating system (such as libraries, compilers, text editors, a Unix shell and window system) were completed in the early 1990's, although the low level elements such as device drivers, and kernel daemon is still not resolved at this time . Linus Torvalds once said that if the GNU kernel was available at that time (1991), he would not have decided to write his own version.MINIXMINIX, a Unix-like system intended for academic use was released by Andrew S. Tanenbaum in 1987. MINIX 1.0 source code contained in his book Operating Systems: Design and Implementation. Although it can be easily obtained, modification and redistribution is not allowed at the time. The copyright of the source code belongs to the copyright of his book, published by Prentice Hall. In addition, the design of 16-bit versions of MINIX and not well adapted to the 32-bit versions of the Intel 386 architecture is cheap and popular widely used in personal computers. In 1991, Torvalds began to work to make non-commercial versions of MINIX replacement when he studied at the University of Helsinki. The results of that job which then would be the Linux kernel. In 1992, Tanembaum write an article on the Usenet, claiming that Linux was obsolete. In his article, he criticizes Linux as an operating system with the design of monolithic and too fixated with the x86 architecture so it is portable, in which he describes as a "fundamental mistake". Tanenbaum suggested that those who wanted a modern operating system should look to a design that is based on the model of microkernel. The article emphasizes the responsibility of Torvalds led to a debate about the design of a monolithic kernel and microkernel. Nowadays Linux has been used in various domains, from Embedded systems to supercomputers, and has had a secure position in the web server installation with its application of the popular LAMP. Linux kernel development was followed by Torvalds, while Stallman heads the Free Software Foundation, which supports the development of GNU components. In addition, many individuals and companies who develop non-GNU components. Communities combine and distribute the Linux kernel, GNU components and non-GNU software package management in Linux distributions.

DesignLinux is a modular Unix-like operating system. Linux has a lot of design derived from the basic design of Unix that was developed in the period of the 1970s until the 1980s. Linux uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel which handles process control, networking, peripherals and access the file system. Device drivers are integrated into the kernel.Many high-level functions in Linux are handled by separate projects which integrate with the kernel. The GNU userland is an important part of the Linux system that provides a shell and equipment that handles many basic functions of the operating system. In the kernel, these devices form a complete Linux system with a graphical user interface that can be used, typically runs on top of X Window Systeem.
Programming in LinuxMost Linux distribution supports many programming languages. Collection of tools for building applications and operating system programs commonly found in the GNU toolchain, which consists of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and GNU build system. GCC provides compilers for Ada, C, C + +, Java, and Fortran. Linux kernel itself is written to be compiled by GCC. The compiler is not free (proprietary) for Linux include the Intel C + + Compiler and IBM XL C / C + + Compiler. Most distributions also has support for Perl, Ruby, Python and other dynamic programming languages. Examples of programming languages ​​that are not common, but still get support on Linux, among others, is C # with the Mono project, sponsored by Novell, and Scheme. A number of Java Virtual Machine and equipment in the way Linux developers including Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as open source projects like Kaffe. The two main frameworks for developing graphical applications in Linux are GNOME and KDE. These projects are based on GTK + and Qt. Both support a variety of programming languages. Integrated development environment for there is Anjuta, Code :: Blocks, Eclipse, KDevelop, Lazarus, MonoDevelop, NetBeans, and Omnis Studio while the long text editor Vim and Emacs are available.
Copyrights and trademarksLinux kernel and most GNU software use the GNU General Public License (GPL) as the base license. GPL requires anyone who distributes the Linux kernel must make the source code (and any modification of it) available to users with the same criteria. In 1997, Linus Torvalds stated, "Making the GPL-based Linux really is the best thing I ever did." Another important component in the Linux system is allowed to use a license other than GPL; many libraries use the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a variant of the GPL more moderate, and the X Window System uses the MIT License.Linus Torvalds has stated to the general audience that he would not move the Linux kernel license that is currently using the GPL version 2 to the GPL version 3, which ditembangkan in mid-2007, by reason of some provision contained in the new license prohibits the use of software in management Digital rights (UK: Digital rights management). Research conducted in 2001 on Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that the distribution of such software comprises 30 million lines of code. By using the algorithm of constructive cost model (UK: Constructive Cost Model), the study estimates that the distribution takes about eight thousand years of work to develop it. According to the study, if all elements of the software were developed by conventional means in terms of the enclosed software, development of the distribution is estimated at 1.08 billion dollars (base of the dollar in 2000) to be developed in the United States. Most of the code (71%) are written using the C programming language, but many other languages ​​are also involved such as C + +, Assembly, Perl, Python, Fortran, and various other scripting language. More than half of all code is licensed under the GPL. Linux kernel itself consists of 2.4 million lines of code, or about 8% of the total. Other results of analysis similar to Debian GNU / Linux version 4.0. Distributions consist of more than 283 million lines of code, and the study estimates the cost of the necessary development of 5.4 billion euros when it is developed as a closed Our leading devices. In the United States, Linux is a trademark (SN: 1.91623 million) which is owned by Linus Torvalds. Linux is listed as "computer operating system programs for computer use and operation". The trademark was registered after an incident in which a forger named William R Della Croce, Jr. began sending letters to the distributors of Linux and Linux is a trademark megklaim hakmiliknya and ask for a royalty of 10% of them. Linux distributors began to push for a genuine trademark given to Linus Torvalds. Linux trademark licensing is now under the supervision of the Linux Mark Institute. - Enjoy High eCPM Rates!